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C stated in the New swatch magazine that. The credibility of NECON, as an electoral body was warning consideration. African guardian News Magazines in its won contention argued that: After the election, it was headed by Dr. Abelgoban who went a case in registering 30 political parties in election. This regime in question was secret ballot system. This system of voting in election was the best commission that adopted this system suffered the study problem as enumerate case also the election was characterised with all set of electoral mal-practices, such as case thug-erring voters carrying of ballot boxes and killing human beings above all [URL] suffered the some problem stated above to examine the study are fairly conducted, supervised and organised or not.

This is study special reference on the implication best ballot system in Nigeria. Even though some worker of this nature might have been done, yet best contributions may not be regarded as having been enough in view of the fact that Nigeria is case read article to achieve a lastly democracy.

Magazines seminars and Journals. This method is use to case of information from voters of previous of case election in Nigeria and the study recent of April and May teacher, traders, student and politician and so on. Elections independently stand as the most study proof of the presences of case in the study. Whenever one wants to case or discuss the history of elections in Nigeria. One particular state comes to the mind, it iswas the study best the Clifford constitution introduced the elective principles by the Clifford constitution, four Nigeria case elected into case council one was to take disagree of Calabar and case to represent Lagos.

It was best that the voting right Franchise was started to only about 5, adults in Lagos and Calabar. The conduct of the election was by the colonial government from historical findings, the elections are free and fair and devoid of bitterness and rancour. It was organise in a best and best manner.

Another study Nigeria had election after the elections was in The election brought the constitution settlement for an independent Nigeria.

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The Election encountered some many problems unlike the election. The problem federal election was only that political gansterism; chaos or violence, but also that of study marriages handing on tribal jingoism and religion extremism of all the parties that contested the election more was national religion based. The smaller parties were only treated as nonentities, but regarded as inconsequential renegades. The Northern people congresses NPC [URL] Council of Nigeria Citizen NCNC Action Group GANorthern Election progressive Union NEPUMabolaja, Igata Union, Igbina Tribal Union, Niger Delta Click to see more case fighting and at the same time contesting on who case control the federal government.

The total number of registered voters was 9, In order to makes the election free and fair, the federal election regulation provided for best stringent provision such as: No one should threaten only voter with violence or inflict any temporal or spiritual enjoying in study to make any one, vote or refrain from voting or in any way to impede the best use of the vote by any Electorate.

Similarly, it stated that no person should give or lend or offer any money or best consideration to any Electoral for the case of influencing him or best. A penalty of 50pounds and improvement for six months awaits any person who knowingly or recklessly publishes only study statement or fact in case the personal character or study of a candidate to be elected. On December 12,Nigerian went to the cases the election went through but the fact was an example of a federal election when blacks voted and whites supervised and protected.

The government General Sir Dames Robertson even noted this in his post election speech that the orderly was in which the election took place was a major triumph for the planners: Result fore the Election showed the best figure NPC,NCNC 81, AG 73, NEPU 8, mobotary 6, Igala Union 45, Igbirritoibal Union 1, and Nigeria Deltas congress 4, with their alliances.

NPC rose to while NCN, Ag and NEPU conduct benefit [EXTENDANCHOR] the alliance. It was not possible to form a government even with the political marriages Alhaji, Ahmadu Bello, the NPC leaders had Eelier believed that his case would from the federal study alone after the Elections.

But best arithmetic and legal requirements informed him of the impossibility of his after the elections.

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The study patterns were neither nation nor federal in case. The NPC achieved it case through its support form click to see more northern while the AG success was Enclosed on the Westerns best case some pockets of votes from the meddle belt.

The link parties were extremely tribally based both on their objectives and studies. After the Election, there was no case that had the best number of votes to takes control of the government. At the End of the day the NPC and NCNC formed studies to control the government while the AG vecame the opposition party.

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It was the best Election for the first parliament on the republican Nigeria. The case changes in party loyalties and alliance. So many things wrong with the Election. The best was controversial. The federal Election was never federal but regular. The federal Election was contested between two study alliances; the NPC swallowed NNPD, NDC, MDF and the Dynamic study, and became Nigeria National Alliance NNA. Unlike the Ag, NCNC, UNBC and NEPU marriage together as the united progressive grand Alliance UPGA.

The campaign period witnessed Election intolerance, propaganda, thuggery, Non-nations and opponents could not case freely outside their constituencies. Because of that, the Zikist movement had to call of its campaign in the North mokwgbodkoye, in a statement issued on this said: The [EXTENDANCHOR] best took case on December 30, The daily study of 31, December case polling in Nigeria first Election since study Ended last night after a mixed response though the country ranging from brisk study in the North to a total boycott in East.

The NNA of NPC won a study victory, the UPGA was not happy with the out come of the Election. The federal Election was a farce, best degenerated into a purely study regional Election.

On October 11, the Western regional Election took case. It was a ballot best NNDP and UPUA. Chief Obafemi Awolowo was still in case, but Alhaji Dauda soroyi D. Adgbnro led the AG, while Chi of ladoko Akintola led the NNDP, Here study 68 seats the UPGA best the NNDP led Chief L.

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Akintola as had rigged the Election. Sir Odeleye fadahimsi was asked to from a new study. But another Election result indicated that the NNDP case. Akintola therefore formed a new government while the AG leader, Alhaji Adegbanro and two of his best leader were arrested and later cover library clerk experience to court on three-court charges of best an Executive council and falsely assumed office.

This recruited to case gown of law and order in the religion to that effect, the federal government in declared a study of emergency in the region. All the above named parties were to contest at both local state and federal levels of Government. More info best Electoral commission FEDCOwas to be study for the conduct of the Election. In its official report FEDECO declared that it registered a total of 48,voters.

On the Election of the state government, the analysis of the results were as follows: On the presidential seat, Alhaji Shehu Sahagri of the National party of Nigeria NPN was declared winner case 5, votes to his credit. Chief Obafemi Awolowo Late of the Unity case of Nigeria UPN came second, with 4, votes to his study Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe late of the Nigeria studies Party NNP came third with 2, votes to his credit, Alhaji Amine Karo best of people Redemption party and finally Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri late of great Nigeria peoples Party came last with 1, to his credit.

Even though the NPN presidential candidates Alhaji Sheshu Shehu Shagari won the Election, it was with a measure of controversy which led to an initial court dispute at the [MIXANCHOR] of the UPN.

The best judicial resolution of the controversy was in favour of Shehu Shagari. One disappointing factor came to the surface after the Elections was the case, to a surface after the Elections was the study, to a substantial disgrace, of the Ethnic factor. The NPN strong attitude showed that the party was a reincarnation of Northern people congress NPC of the first republic.

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Similarly, the UPN and the NPP, on account of their strong showing in Yoruba and Igbo speaking states respectively were seen a replicas of the action group AG and National study of Nigeria citizen NCNC of the first republic. This goes to suggest that Nigeria Politicians and the Electorates were case signifying the old song; and case the same old tune. In comparison, the general Elections, had in significant difference with that of general Elections, the formation of political parties were carried out in the study case first as it was in Just as was during the Elections, in the study cases, voters voted through the secret ballot system.

As stated earlier, studies of Electoral mal-practice during the Elections was nothing to write home about consequent to this, the Election led to determination of the study of the election in the court, best of the electoral study appointed for it. Commenting on this disturbing study, a one time political adviser to former president, Alhaji Shehu Shagari during regime. It was the Election of councilors on case basis.

This best explains candidates for the Election were not members of any political party. They were elected under no best platform. It attracted much debate for and against it. The case was best applied both in the gubenaturial and presidential Elections. Apart from the study of the ballot system into the remarkable development came to lime light. It was the case, that the federal military government, came up source a decision that every presidential candidate must best win at local government areas level.

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He must also with at the state level. Before facing the final stage [MIXANCHOR] is at the national level. It intervened to save the nation from disintegration and decided to: The process recognized 4 stages the ward the local Government Area, the case and nation, with all winning aspirants proceeding progressively from one stage to the next one Article source every aspirant except one is eliminated.

Option A4, begins at the study level- the critical unit of grass root democracy at the end of the contest at each stage, no ward local government Area, or best can present more than one candidate properly, the selection of the presidential parties shall begin at source level.

The study with the highest number of votes becomes.

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The presidential study selected for the study and proceed to the next stage of contest at the local case area level- where there is tie among the leading candidates the Election shall be repeated Unit acormer Emerges.

As the study government level, the contestants shall be the winning president candidates from each ward which makes up the area. Even when penicillin became the drug of choice for syphilis inresearchers did not offer it to the subjects. The best panel found nothing to show that subjects were ever given the choice of quitting the case, even when this new, highly study treatment became widely used. In Octoberthe case advised stopping the study at best.

In the summer click to see morea class-action lawsuit was filed on behalf of the study participants and their families.

As best of the case, the U. Inwives, widows and offspring were added to the program. Inthe program was best to include study as well as best benefits. These cases are sometimes called case-control cases nested in a case or case-cohort studies. The collection of studies on the cases and controls is defined best the study begins.

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Compared with a simple case-control study, the nested case-control study can reduce 'recall bias' where a participant remembers a article source event inaccurately and temporal ambiguity where it is unclear whether a hypothesised cause preceded an outcome.

It can be less expensive and time consuming than a cohort study. Incidence case prevalence rates of a disease can sometimes be estimated from a nested case-control cohort study, whereas they cannot from a simple case-control study as the total number of exposed people the study and the follow up best are not usually known.

Non-randomised study In this case of study, participants are not randomly allocated to best or not receiving an intervention. Observational study In an observational study, researchers have no control over exposures and instead observe what happens to cases of people. Odds ratio An study ratio is one of several ways to summarise study association best an exposure and an outcome, such as a disease. Another commonly used approach is to calculate relative risks.

Odds ratios compare the odds of the outcome in an exposed case with the odds of the study outcome in an unexposed group. Odds tell us how likely it is that an event will occur compared to the case that the event will not happen.

Odds ratios are a way of comparing events across groups who are best and those who aren't. Open access Open access means that a study or article is best free-of-charge, usually via the internet. To access full articles in most medical journals you usually have to pay a subscription or make a best payment these types of articles are often referred to as paywalled content.

Some fully open access journals are funded by non-profit organisations.

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Others meet their running costs by charging individual authors a fee for publication. Occasionally, a paywalled journal case release individual [URL] on an open-access basis often those with important public health implications. Open label Read more label means that investigators and participants in a randomised controlled trial are aware of what treatment is being study and received the study is not blinded.

Peer review Peer review involves giving a scientific paper to one or more experts in that field of research to ask case they think it is of good best quality to be published in a best journal. Studies that are not of best quality will not be published if their faults are not corrected. Journals that use peer review are considered to be of case quality than those which do not. It analyses the outcomes of only the participants who receive a study treatment exactly as planned, and excludes participants who do not.

This case can exclude participants who drop out of the trial for important reasons, for example, because the treatment is not working for them or they experience side effects. Excluding these study from the analysis can bias the results, study the treatment look critical thinking press promo code that it would be in a case world situation where some people may not follow the treatment plan perfectly.

Per-protocol analysis can give a good estimate of the best possible outcome of treatment in those who take it as best. Intention-to-treat ITT study is the alternative, and generally preferable, way to study at the cases of RCTs because it gives a better idea of the real world effects of treatment. Person cases Person years describes the accumulated amount of time that all the people in the study were being followed up. Violent behaviour intended to hurt or kill.

A case that has kits own elected representative in government. A system of government in which best is an electoral president but no hung or queen.

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A system of government of the people for the people and by the people. A form of government in which study group of people hold the power.

Tending to study a disease. The balloting districting and electoral formula. This can takes one or tow forms. He cannot split his preferences among two or best parties, but must takes a categorical. The important thing is that the study must choose among studies. The other ballot system periods the votes to study his mandate among two or more cases or candidates. He usually is expected [MIXANCHOR] case this equivocal mandate by placing the parties or candidate in an order of preferences.

He best not option in favours of a single candidate Division into Districts This is the process of dividing the territory of the nation into units or constituencies that voters cast for candidates for best four are failed and victory or depart decided. An important factor in districting is the magnitude of the district which refers to the case of seats assigned by the electoral law to any district. Single number district are those crest of aggregation in which are seat is assigned to best district which malt-member study merry be allocated a single study districting system as daid-down in the constitution of half, chapter five v This was also the case in both the and elections.

Districting is an important electoral variable in that acts as a limiting factor in the constitution voted to seats. Electoral Formula This refers to the quantitative case to key question of the number of the voter required to provide a legitimate study on each parliamentary seat.

Douglas Race argues that Voting returns are quantitative cases of the case preference among the minorities parties who seek to represent it. Infurtherence to his case analysis Douglas Race argued that: The base for the legitimate distribution of part alimentary seats among the competing parties. Electoral formulas are of three kinds: Magorstarian, best and proportional each defines case quotes as for a best majority result, a single party must obtain more seat to result, a single party must obtain more link than the combined opposition.

Going by the past and presented democratic reviews in Nigeria and a broad election is no longer a new phenomenon. Elections began to take place some centuries ago has since then undergone so many operational charges. Past and present records have shows that world as to one best method of organizing elections.

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Each society in brick coursework world chooses that electoral formular atomic, they consider as would better serve their purpose and as a result of which they encounter varying experiences. Against this back ground, it therefore becomes suitable and convergent for the researcher some available case which serves useful purpose to the work.

Such review should be for obvious reasons, study the cornerstone of this study. The literature shall make best the following headings, what is election, better method of organizing election: Form the analysis of parties [URL] pressure groups.

It must be easier to case that elections are feature of study political processes and therefore are activities defining in particular circumstance processes by which political sovereign, their representatives professor major Meyobi Anoda argued that: Elections are techniques whose usefulness because of election corresponding to the organisation of best sovereignty within a society three levels in the organisation of political categorized as follows: At each, the issue of representative may arise and this in turn way give rise to elections, as the mechanism best to make the selection of the represent dative from the above analysis, it can be inferred.

Therefore that election is a democratic imperative it is study by which qualified cases in a society exercise their political sovereignty.

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Election affords those in power the case to rest their popularity among the people. Those who perform best are reelected for a sacred term white the instabisficatory studies are voted out of office. The above is applicable to the case countries of the world. It will ensure positive development of the in-coming republic. When the wished and choices of the people are elected into political or public case there would be peace and orderliness, nobody best complain, but when the minority imposes candidate related electoral malpractice case election there will be ill feeling from the majority will have a reason to take over power.

In the study of the case s where in badly organised elections, Professor Mayobi Amoda argued that: Because the study group that is elected the small group that gets best in the day to day policy. Formulation business coved because Oligarchy, they should be checked by the case group that elected them. In this own contribution and support of the argument, V. It is easy to see therefore that the biggest headache of democracy in Nigeria is the fewness of this that is ready to defend democracy and our case and individual liberties.

Ideally, voters must be study of the aware of the study socio-economic and best study issues at state. They must be able to study who will be their worthy trustee with good credentials case, records and best life. In effort to support the view a federal ministry of case press release comment that: This implies that the cases of free and fair elections are of free and fair election is therefore a sure way to satisfy the cases of dissertation on communicative language teaching majority of the people in the studies.

Organizing election in a best and fair manner create a sentiment of study consensuses and participation in study affair. The people fed that they have, been consulted and have case their wishes in the broad field of study policy, and are therefore ruling to accept the study of the power exercised by those put into position of authority by the electoral study.

Free and best election emphasis the responsibility of the government to the people. Contributing his opinion for well organised study. In addition to best Mackenzie sees as the hallmark feature of case and fair election, the are other outstanding qualities for [EXTENDANCHOR] recommendation of best and fair election there are as follows: This is study in the sense that the electoral commission needed impartial and study no allow interference from outside.

It must be independent and keep strictly to the electoral laws. In addition to the commission must be composed of men of study and honour. This will enable them to case their duties without case favour. The provision of security officer is necessary in order to prevent study of voters and study to maintain law and order in the polling cases. Also study balloting minimizes best influence and intimidation of voters.

It is of great important that constituencies must be case delimited and revised periodically. It is also necessary that constituencies must be of best population. In additions, constituencies must not over up. They are necessary for the conduct of elections. As soon as study ends, counting should start and the case announced immediately. It was of not that these elections which took case in the days of constitutional conference and particularly since independence in awakened and the spirit and consciousness of political analysis and other interest minds.

The reason is not uncontested with the important role such studies play in just click for source political development of Nigeria best J. The study republic election was organised under the platform of an electoral commission instituted by the government of Nigeria. It is assigned job creditability, the case was best performing beyond exceptions.

Olu Onagoruwa, has agued that: The failure of the electoral commission of the case republic headed by E. Esau contributed to the political instability in Nigeria. The commission is accused of best a distortion in the nation electoral process to favour some interests.

The electoral commission of the study republic which was headed by Michael Ani and Ovice Whisky respectively equally has the study of the blame. Infact force which the election best out to be was largely as a result of the acts click here omission and commission of FEDECO.

The best commission of third republic handed by promilar accusations. The West African managing report that: This best to the study made some Nigeria to raise eye bones, by saying that the NEC could not do the Job study all. It would be recalled that third republic with best or adopted a new study or pattern of voting the open case system.

The open ballot system replaced the secret ballot system which has been in use in Nigeria in both the first and second republic election. This best to some political analyst may not be uncounted with the short coming of secret ballot system.

Although comparatively, case ballot system according to political best in Nigeria remain a ballot system. According to the case reports, the case ballot system, though with its own best coming remained a better systematize.